How to Build True Agility With your Team

Agility as a term has been overloaded with multiple meanings, especially from the software development perspective. I define agility simply as the ability to change your perspective, your worldview (or orientation as Boyd would put it) and your actions to adapt to what’s happening in the real world. There are two key ideas in that definition. The first one is about change and the second is about adaptability. You need to be able to do both if you have any hope of being agile.

So how do you create agility in your team so that you can respond quickly when the situation changes? Suppose a disgruntled customer tweets something negative about you, and then on top of that he buys an ad that will promote that tweet to 20,000 twitter users. How long will it take you to respond?

It happened last year when a British Airways passenger, unhappy that the airline lost his father’s luggage, sent out a promoted tweet about their customer service being “horrendous” It took BA more than a day to respond to the customer. By then, the tweet had been picked by several media and news outlets. How would you have handled this if you were running the social media team at BA?

If you’re like most companies, you’d have to first find out. if you don’t have the necessary tools in place to get notified when something like this happens, you will unfortunately find out too late. This is the Observation stage of the OODA loop which I wrote about here. Assuming you find out early enough, you might have to go through a lot of bureaucratic red tape getting approval and sign off from everyone involved before a response is set in motion. Not very agile.

If your team was agile, you’d be able to respond a lot quicker and nip that negative publicity in the bud before it starts to spin out of control. Lets take another example. Suppose you notice a problem on your company’s website that is severely affecting conversion. You enter a support request. How soon can the problem be fixed?

If the web development team was agile (and I don’t necessarily mean that in the sense of following agile project management practices) someone can be pulled off of whatever they’re working on to fix the issue quickly. More often than not, the issue will go unnoticed for weeks, if not months and even then, it will take more time to be properly fixed.

So how do you become more agile?

Here are some of the principles of the agile software development manifesto. Let’s analyze them and see if we notice a pattern.

  1. Your highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
  2. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.
  3. Business people and developers must work  together daily throughout the project.
  4. Working software is the primary measure of progress.
  5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.
  6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.
  7. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer’s competitive advantage.

What do you notice?

What do you get by satisfying the customer through delivering continuous valuable software on a regular basis? What do you achieve by working together with the business? What do you get when your measure of success is working software?

You get Mutual Trust!

What do you achieve by working with a team of motivated individuals who have the environment they require and the support and trust they need to get the job done? What do you get by communicating face to face and welcoming last minute requirements changes?

You get: Mutual Trust and Cohesion

And what do you get when your single point of focus is delivering quality software at all costs?

You get true Agility!

If you study the OODA loop in my previous post, there’s a part of it specifically about implicit guidance and control. This means that there could be a point where you don’t need a formal process to actually get something done. A coworker recently mentioned that they had gotten so good at working with the developers that they no longer needed to discuss things formally, a lot of design decisions were made and communicated implicitly. This allowed both the designers and the developers to operate quickly and get things done faster.

The first element is: Mutual Trust

In order to get to this level of operation, where the team knows exactly what to do and when to do it, the first element you need is mutual trust, unity and cohesion. Not just any type of trust, unity and cohesion, but the kind that is earned through working together through many different projects.

Of course it needn’t be said that at the same time, the team needs to also spend time together outside of the context of work. This will help them get a sense of how everyone on the team thinks and allow them to build that level of trust.

In order to achieve that kind of unity and cohesion, both parties need to be striving towards the same goal. And so the second element you need is the concept of a single point of focus. The idea with single point of a focus is that all the surrounding activities must support it and everyone involved, not just everyone on the team but also the rest of the company, needs to understand, support and work towards this focus.

The second element: Single Point of  Focus

When team members in different departments do not have a single point of focus, they will focus on creating silos and protecting their department’s turf. This is a sure-fire formula to get organizational politicking, power plays and turf wars and lots of bureaucratic red tape. 

How to destroy agility (or what not to do)

The easiest way to destroy agility is to mistrust employees by not believing in their ability to make their own decisions about what’s right and what they should pursue. When things are going great, there’s lots of trust in the team, but when sales start to shrink, many companies feel they need to pull the controls upstairs and start to manage by directive rather by mission.

One of the ways to communicate distrust is by micromanaging. When you micromanage, you are checking everything your team is producing and if you’re not satisfied, you probably end up even doing it yourself. This is very common and it’s a horrible way to manage people. I’ve been there before and it’s not fun. After a while you lose any desire to produce quality work that you can pride yourself on and you lose any initiative you may have had.

How to Get an Advantage Through Faster Tempo – Time based Competition and the OODA Loop

John M. Boyd was an air force pilot who earned the nickname “40-second Boyd” due to his ability to defeat any enemy in combat air maneuvering in 40 seconds or less. He was very much interested in theory and later on, after he became a consultant he developed a brief called Patterns of Conflict summarizing military strategy from Sun Tzu, to Hannibal, to WWII Blitzkrieg, to guerrilla warfare.

Despite all this, the one concept he’s most known for is the OODA loop. It grew out of his theory of learning which he called Destruction and Creation and is the only paper he ever published. In it he discusses the processes of analysis and synthesis, which later would play a role in the Orientation phase of the OODA loop. 

Destruction and Creation

According to Boyd, through analysis you break down the whole into pieces so you can understand it better, and through synthesis you put various pieces together to create a new coherent whole. The key is to shatter the domains that hold the pieces together in your mind so that they are no longer connected to those domains. The relationship between those parts and the whole is to be destroyed before a new whole can be created.

Boyd’s example was the snowmobile. You take the treads from the tank, the engine of an outboard motorboat, the skis and the handlebar of a bicycle. When you take each of those parts individually and you shatter the links they have to the original concept (tank, boat, bike and ski) you are able to see how you can put them together in a whole new coherent way (the snowmobile). This according to Boyd was creative destruction. 

Fast Transients

After destruction and creation, Boyd set his sites on trying to understand warfare, especially how the US who was better equipped ended up losing the Vietnam War. He started his analysis by looking at why the F86 had more wins than the MiG despite the fact they were very similar in what he deemed energy-maneuverability (another concept he created earlier in his career as an air force pilot).

After working on it for a while he discovered that the F86 was able to go through changes in speed and direction much faster than the MiG due to it’s hydraulic controls vs the MiG’s mechanical controls. The F86 also had a much winder angle canopy which allowed the pilot a better view of the enemy. We’ll come back to that when we discuss the observation phase of the OODA loop.

The ability to quickly switch maneuvers in response to what your opponent was doing, was a key advantage that created a rapidly changing environment and caused confusion, disorientation and panic in your adversary rendering them unable to adapt quickly. This meant that in order to win, you had to operate a faster tempo than your adversary in fact you must operate inside their tempo.

This led him to create a brief called Patterns of Conflict which started out small but then ended up growing to be 8 full hours!. During the slides of the brief, as Boyd is explaining the key concepts of the blitzkrieg and guerilla warfare, he mentions the concept of the OODA Loop, or Observe, Orient, Decide, Act. According to Boyd, if you were able to go through the OODA loop faster than your opponent, you could essentially win without having to resort to attrition warfare.

The biggest misconception about the OODA loop is that it’s a simple step by step process comprised of four distinct steps which you then try to loop through as quickly as possible. Boyd’s concept was much more than that as we’ll see. 

OODA Loop

 Here is a diagram of the OODA “loop”

Image

During Observation you gather as much information as possible through your five senses and unfolding circumstances, unfolding interaction with the environment, feedback from any action or any decision you’ve taken and more importantly implicit guidance and control. Anything that hindered your ability to observe clearly and get accurate information about your environment will hinder your ability to orient yourself properly and cause mismatches between your “reality” and you opponent’s “reality” This was his key insight as to why the F86 was superior. The MiG’s canopy restricted the pilot’s view, creating blind spots that could easily be exploited by the enemy.

Because the key to the OODA Loop is how fast you switch maneuvers, you don’t want to be spending too much time Observing, you want to quickly move on to Orientation. 

Orientation is the key to the entire “loop” What Boyd meant by orientation is in a way the opposite of disorientation. Your goal is to bring about things like previous experience, new information, analysis/synthesis, genetic heritage and cultural traditions to create a complex integration, or as I like to call it a mental model of the situation. What Boyd means here, is that you should be able to read a situation in such a way that is as close to reality as possible and keep it that way so that you don’t get disoriented. When you do that, you’re able to dictate and shape the mind of your opponent in such a way as to bring about disorientation and confusion and inhibit their ability to make clear decisions.

In the Decision phase, you create a hypothesis of what the orientation suggested and you test it by taking Action.

The most important thing to note here is that these stages do no need to occur in this order. Notice the arrows for implicit guidance and control between orientation and observation/decision/action. What this means is that there’s a point where a you can achieve an intuitive sense for how the events are unfolding. You get an insight and it happened to match reality perfectly. Once this happens, you no longer need to go though the stages one by one, they begin to occur simultaneously. You can now begin to dictate the tempo of decisions and shape the mind of your opponent. This allows you to win more easily. 

Fast Tempo Offense in Sports

I don’t like sports metaphors in general (since not everyone is a sports fan) but they illustrate the OODA loop perfectly. In the American NFL, NBA and in other sports, the idea of a fast tempo offense is starting to become more common. There will be a stage during the game where the coach will notice something in the defense, the game situation , the score, etc. and decide to speed up the tempo of the game in order to catch the defense off-guard or to dictate the tempo and score more easily.

The coach will observe for example the certain set up of the defense, how tired they look, their energy level, how much attention they’re paying in the game, take into account the score of the game, the clock, how well his team is advancing, game film that he’s seen previously of this particular defense in this situation, the type of defense he’s dealing with, plays they ran in practice, etc. and orient himself to the situation by creating a mental model of the reality. During orientation, he will get an idea that maybe by switching to a faster tempo, he can spark the offense, disorient the defense, advance faster and score easier.

He makes the decision and calls for quicker/higher percentage of success plays. Given how accurate the read of the situation was, how successful the play was, how the defense reacted, (this is feedback that will shape his orientation) he will go through the loop again and decide whether to continue the quick tempo while the defense tries hard to adjust. It’s very important that this fast decision making tempo be kept up in order to keep the defense guessing and delay/inhibit their ability to orient and adjust to the faster tempo. If the read of the situation was accurate, the coach will start to get an intuitive feel for the game and know exactly which plays to call in order to be successful.

Fast Tempo in Business

In business, if your orientation doesn’t match reality, for example when you’re clueless about what the customers really want, you will end up slowly declining and eventually go bankrupt. A good example of a company who operates at a fast tempo is Google. When Google first launched, AltaVista was the most popular search engine (in fact Google founders Larry Page and Sergei Brin, actually tried to license their search technology to AltaVista but they refused).

Internet search engines had a problem. They would display results without any sort of relevance, making it hard for you to find what you were actually looking for. One can say that their orientation to the marketplace was off. Google invented an algorithm called PageRank which assigned a rank to a website based on how many other sites linked to it. This was an insight that Brin got while he was working on a project to digitize papers. He noticed that the best papers had the most references from other papers.

People started to switch to Google as their main search engine and sites like AltaVista didn’t adjust so they headed for a decline. Not willing to adjust they slowly went out of business. But Google didn’t stop there. They monetized search by placing text based ads next to the search results. If you wanted your website to show up as a top search result in Google for certain search terms/keywords, given that most people didn’t go beyond the first 2-3 pages of search results, you needed to outbid your competition for those specific search terms/keywords.

However the natural search results were free! So people tried to figure out how Google’s PageRank algorithm worked by reverse engineering the search results (since this information is proprietary to Google) and then try to optimize sites or game Google’s algorithm so their site would appear on top for the desired search terms/keywords. The SEO (search engine optimization) game is still being played to this day. The problem isn’t that people try to figure out Google’s algorithm, the problem is that unscrupulous marketers were using unethical techniques (also known as “black hat SEO” from the popular term “black hat hacker”) to try and game the search results and have their sites show up on top undeservingly.

Operating at a fast tempo, Google began periodically updating the algorithm in order to stay one step ahead of these “black hat” SEO hackers. If Google didn’t operate at a fast tempo, they would soon start to lose credibility in their search results.

This is only scratching the surface of what the OODA Loop can do. Some of the more interesting applications of it can achieve the ability to shape the marketplace, shape the mind of the customer and the mind of the competitors to keep them at bay. For more on John Boyd, check out Robert Coram’s excellent biography “Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of War”